Tony Arcieri

Hi there. These days I dabble in Rust and cryptography, but in the past made the Celluloid actor framework for Ruby and the Reia programming language

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A quick tour of Rust’s Type System Part 1: Sum Types (a.k.a. Tagged Unions)

Rust is one of those hip new programming languages you might get tired of hearing about on the Hacker News, but talking with people who have heard of Rust but haven’t actually looked into it in depth, I feel like what Rust actually offers you as a programmer is often poorly communicated. The more I use Rust, the more I’ve come to discover that the single most important thing it offers, the part of the language that almost all of its other benefits fall out of, is its type system.

I’m embarking on a short series of blog posts which will explore Rust’s type system, and hopefully describe things in a beginner-friendly way such that you don’t need to know a whole lot about advanced type systems to understand what I’m talking about.

Before I go any further talking about type systems, let me make one thing clear: this is not a post for type system experts. If you’re a functional programmer...

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Introducing TJSON, a stricter, typed form of JSON

TJSON logo

NOTE: TJSON syntax has been revised since this post was originally published. Please visit for the latest syntax.

I’d like to announce a project I’ve been working on with Ben Laurie called TJSON (Tagged JSON).

TJSON is syntax-compatible with JSON, but adds mandatory type annotations. Its primary intended use is in cryptographic authentication contexts, particularly ones where JSON is used as a human-friendly alternative representation of data in a system which otherwise works natively in a binary format.

Before I go further describing TJSON, I’d like to give some background.


JSON is a bit of a mess. You may have seen Parsing JSON is a Minefield recently, which did a fantastic job of illustrating that while JSON’s “simplicity is a virtue” approach lead to widespread adoption, underspecification has lead to a proliferation of interoperability...

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A gentle introduction to nio4r: low-level portable asynchronous I/O for Ruby

Rails 5.0 was recently released, and with it came ActionCable, a new part of the framework to put WebSockets “on Rails”. ActionCable has had something of a sordid history, from taking Rails Core developer Aaron Patterson by surprise when he first heard of it at a RailsConf keynote to at one point using both EventMachine and Celluloid, each of which independently is an onerous dependency (I say this as the author of Celluloid).

That said, the dust has settled and both EventMachine and Celluloid have been removed. Instead, ActionCable is based on concurrent-ruby, a Ruby library inspired by Java’s java.util.concurrent which was already a Rails dependency, and nio4r, i.e. New I/O (or Non-blocking I/O) for Ruby, a library you may not have heard of before inspired by java.nio. While EventMachine and Celluloid are both grand inventions, I think there’s something to be said for copying our...

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A tale of two cryptocurrencies: Ethereum and Bitcoin’s ongoing challenges


It’s been one of the most interesting months in the history of cryptocurrency. The price of Bitcoin has soared up to nearly $800 (then dropped to $675 as $19 million in BTC hit the market) as the reward for mining a block is soon set to be halved. Ethereum created what is arguably the world’s most complex multi-million dollar financial instrument, the DAO, only to see it hacked through a combination of flaws in its “smart contract” and the language it was implemented in. Meanwhile, the average size of a block in the Bitcoin blockchain nears 90% of the 1MB hard limit.

I’ve been meaning to write a year-in-review followup to my previous post The Death Of Bitcoin, but with the recent events covering Ethereum I just couldn’t help but cover that too, and also speculate what effects this will have on Bitcoin.

Ethereum’s Hindenburg moment: The DAO disaster and smart contract security


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On the dangers of a blockchain monoculture


At first there was Bitcoin: the world’s most successful cryptocurrency to-date. But lately there has been more and more talk about “the Bitcoin blockchain”, “the blockchain”, “blockchain”, or “blockchain technology”. Bloomberg reports that Nasdaq is seeking to show progress using the much-hyped blockchain. LWN notes The Linux Foundation recently announced a project to “advance blockchain technology”. The Washington Post lists Bitcoin and the blockchain as one of six inventions of magnitude we haven’t seen since the printing press. VISA, Citi, and Nasdaq have invested $30 million into a blockchain company. VCs have collectively invested $1 billion in the Bitcoin ecosystem. Bank of America is allegedly trying to load up on “blockchain” patents. The Bank of England says there’s lots of “buzz around blockchain” and is curious what you’d use “blockchain” for. It seems “blockchain” is...

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The Death of Bitcoin


The road of innovation is paved with the corpses of outmoded technologies. Throughout history there are countless examples of a technology presumed to be the “next big thing” starting to gain traction, only to find itself outmoded in the light of a technology that can solve a problem better.

Will this happen to Bitcoin? I don’t know. Unfortunately I don’t have a crystal ball which can tell me that. However, I think it’s an interesting thing to speculate about. Bitcoin is described by enthusiasts as potentially being bigger than the Internet itself (a claim I can’t seem to understand, considering that Bitcoin is an Internet-powered technology), but what if the opposite happened, and Bitcoin wound up being as popular as Betamax cassettes or Napster in the grand scheme of things?

I don’t want to be entirely grim, despite this post’s title. This isn’t intended to be some “Bitcoin is...

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An open letter to Matz on Ruby type systems


Hi Matz,

I really enjoyed your keynote at RubyConf 2014. The most interesting part of it to me was where you talked about how Ruby 3.0 might include some sort of type system. There are lots of directions you can go with type systems in Ruby. Your presentation talked about how you like to explore different directions that you could go with a given feature.

I think there were two big points you made about a type system in Ruby that are important:

  • DRY: adding types should not make the Rubyist add type declarations to their program over and over again
  • Duck Typing: this is important to the way Rubyists program and any type system added to Ruby should still enable duck typing

After many years of writing Ruby, I have taken on a rather defensive programming style for a lot of the code I write after debugging too many type-related issues. I often find myself writing code like this:


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Would Rust have prevented Heartbleed? Another look

In case you haven’t heard, another serious OpenSSL vulnerability will be announced this Thursday. It reminded me of about a year ago, when Heartbleed was announced:


In December 2014 I gave a talk at Mozilla about cryptography in Rust (slides here). I have been meaning to do a followup blog post both about my talk, reactions I received from it, and my subsequent thoughts…

And then this blog post happens. I have been reading Ted Unangst’s blog for quite awhile, mostly with great respect. This particular blog post was, unfortunately, not up to his usual standards. He blogs on a wide range of topics, but security is a complicated field and this blog post is, in my opinion, highly misleading. Ted claims he implemented “Heartbleed” in Rust. Is that actually the case?

In my talk at Mozilla, I covered several of the SSL/TLS bugs seen in 2014, and spent a lot of time covering “goto fail”...

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Volapük: A Cautionary Tale for Any Language Community

You may have heard of artificially constructed spoken languages such as Esperanto, Interlingua, or Lojban, but do you realize that before any of these languages there was another constructed language which once claimed nearly a million followers, making it the most popular constructed language of all time?

That language was Volapük, and despite achieving such a high number of speakers is nowadays all but forgotten, even among linguists. I think Volapük’s story is one worth telling, because the reasons for its downfall are worth knowing for any member of a language community.

Volapük was created by Johann Martin Schleyer between 1879 and 1880. Schleyer was a Roman Catholic Priest who, one night, claimed to hear God himself speak to him commanding him to create a universal language to unite the European peoples. Volapük was a hybrid of English, German, and French, although you probably...

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CREAM: the scary SSL attack you’ve probably never heard of


2014 was a year packed full of the discovery of new SSL attacks. First we found Java was vulnerable to a new type of “Bleichenbacher” attack. Apple’s SecureTransport, used by both iOS and OS X, went down next with the “goto fail” vulnerability. GNUTLS was vulnerable to a man-in-the-middle attack. OpenSSL perhaps came out as the most notorious with the Heartbleed attack. The NSS library, used by Chrome and Firefox among others, was vulnerable to yet another Bleichenbacher attack known as BERserk. The Microsoft SChannel library used by Windows was vulnerable to a particularly scary remote code execution vulnerability. At least two protocol-level vulnerabilities in SSL were widely circulated: the triple-handshake attack and POODLE. And we still have over a month left in the year!

While 2014 is a notable outlier in terms of the sheer number of attacks discovered and the publicity they’ve...

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